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托福听力|看清组织结构题的本质

作者: 2021-11-09 11:38 来源:宁波编辑
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在托福听力考试中,有一类题型的出题频率比较高,大约3道题每套,有时可能更高,几乎可以认为每篇lecture必考,那就是组织结构题。

王倩慧 Valerie

王倩慧-灰色背景-小.jpg

新航道雅思听力、雅思写作、托福听力主讲,英语专业八级,持上海口译证书,教师资格证。

先来看下托福官方指南对它的定义:


? In understanding organization questions you may be asked about the overall organization of the listening passage, or you may be asked about the relationship between two portions of the listening passage.

我们在以上发觉了两处信息,其一组织结构题问的是整个文章通篇的构架和组织结构,以及可能问到听力文章两部分之间的关系。总的来说就是结构上的关系和作用。

组织结构题示例:

? Why does the professor mention Greek and Roman mythology?

? What point does the professor make about the twenty amino acids that occur on proteins on Earth?
? Why does student mention climbing a ladder?

? Why does the professor tell the man about the appointment at the doctor’s office?

我们发现这类问题经常围绕一个例子去提问

或者简单来说就是问例子的作用。

听力原文中很多段落都按照以下经典的段落模式:


分论点(段意)


解释句


举例


总结(不一定有)

e.g. TPO12 L3

Opera, as we think of it, is, of course, a resurrected form. (分论点) It is the melodious drama of ancient Greek theater. (解释)以下开始举例The term “melodious drama” being shortened eventually to “melodrama” because operas frequently are melodramatic, not to say unrealistic. And the group that put the first operas together that we have, today even, were... well it was a group of men that included Galileo’s father, Vincenzo. And they met in Florence.

He and a group of friends of the count of Bardi, and they formed what is called the Camerata dei Bardi. And they took classical theater and reproduced it in the Renaissance time. This…um... this produced some of the operas that we have today. (总结)

分析

这段文字出现了好多意大利文,但这些并不重要。我们要知道的是他为什么提到ancient Greek theater?它和 opera 有什么关系?其实听完这段文字,我们大致能明白讲的就是一帮意大利人把ancient Greek theater复活了,变成了今天opera的雏形。

Q3. Why does the professor mention ancient Greek theater ?

? A. To give an example of a culture that adopted opera from the Italians

? B. To describe the type of setting in which opera was typically performed

? C. To point out a precursor of opera.

? D. To explain how opera was introduced into French society.

? 所以这道题选c precursor n. 先驱

Tips:

例子不是为了说明自己,而是为了说明某些道理,而在听力材料中,例子就是为了证明所处段落的分论点。
只需要记例子的名字。笔记重点:段意+例子名字,其他酌情记录。

我们再来看一个例子

e.g. TPO 48 L2
3.Why does the professor describe moving a sheet of heavy paper over a candle?
A. To clarify that plumes do not produce great amounts of heat
B. To describe an experiment he would like the students to conduct
C. To illustrate one hypothesis for the way some volcanic anomalies are formed
D. To emphasize the thinness of some of Earth’s tectonic plates


听力原文:

Hmmm. Well, the most popular theory that's been proposed is the plume hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, plumes—um, basically, columns of extremely hot magma—these plumes well up from deep inside the planet's interior—maybe even as deep as its core—and rise all the way up to melt through the Earth's crust.

Imagine a burning candle. And imagine moving a sheet of heavy paper slowly over the flame of the candle—you’re gonna get a series of burned spots in the paper. Well that's just like what's happening with the Hawaiian Islands. But instead of a sheet of paper, you've got a tectonic plate, and it's moving over this plume of intensely hot magma. And rather than a series of burned spots in the paper, you're getting a chain of volcanic islands... where the hot plume melts through the crust under the Pacific Ocean at one point after another—with active volcanoes on the younger islands that're now just above the plume, and the other islands … well, the farther away from the plume they are now, the older they are and the longer ago their volcanoes went dormant or extinct.

分析

这段话的分论点前有hmmm,和well 这两个信号要注意听,接下来老师说到一个地幔柱假说的理论。紧接着老师说:Imagine a burning candle. And imagine moving a sheet of heavy paper slowly over the flame of the candle。用imagine开始举例。说明蜡烛是为了解释地幔柱理论。因此我们可以得出正确答案是C

本期的内容就到这里,同学们都学会了吗?

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